Women and the Economy

international-womens-day2On the heels of International Women’s Day – celebrated on March 8th to honor and celebrate the economic, political, and social achievements of women –  the Institute for Women’s Policy Research together with the North Carolina Council for Women, has released the Status of Women in North Carolina report. The report shows that despite women’s higher levels of education and the significant increase in labor force participation over the past decades, wage and income inequality persists in the state.

According to the report, between 1990 and 2010, in North Carolina:

  • The share of women with at least a bachelor’s degree increased sharply from 16 percent in 1990 to 27 percent in 2010.
  • The share of women who did not finish high school fell from 30 to 13 percent.
  • The proportion of women in poverty increased from 14 to 17 percent

The fact that more women continue to fall into poverty (the state ranks 39th in the percent of women living above the poverty line) despite higher levels of education and career positions is explained in part by the wage gap. Read More

Sunday marks “Women’s Equality Day” – commemorating the date in 1920 when women in the United States won the right to vote.

In advance of the occasion, state officials released a preliminary report this week detailing some of the significant social and economic advances women in North Carolina have made in recent decades. But the report, The Status of Women in North Carolina, also details the disparities that persist especially in the area of economic security.

Among the key findings:

  • Nearly six in ten women are now in the workforce (U.S. Department of Commerce 2012a), compared to 34 percent of women in 1950 and 43 percent of women in 1970(Fullerton 1999). Women’s labor force participation in North Carolina reflects this trend; as of 2010, 59 percent of women were active in the workforce.
  • In North Carolina, as in the United States as a whole, women have higher levels of education than men. Women in the state are more likely than men to hold an associate’s degree or have some college education (33 percent of women compared to 28 percent of men) or to have a bachelor’s degree or higher (27 percent of women compared to 26 percent of men). A smaller proportion of women than men have not graduated from high school (13 percent of women compared to 17 percent of men).iii
  • Despite women’s higher educational attainment, women’s wages in North Carolina lag behind men’s. In 2010, the median annual earnings for women who work full-time, year-round in North Carolina were $7,000 (or $135 per week) less than the median annual earnings of comparable men; women’s earnings were $33,000, compared to $40,000 for men.
  • In North Carolina, as in the United States as a whole, the gender wage gap is even larger when only men and women at the same educational level are compared. Women who have at least a college degree and work full-time, year-round earn more than $20,000 less per year than comparable men (a gender wage gap of 29 percent); for women with some college education or an associate’s degree, the loss of earnings for women is about $10,000 per year (a gender wage gap of 24 percent).
  • In North Carolina, poverty status varies considerably by race and ethnicity. Among women in the state, Hispanic women are the most likely to be poor or near poor (64 percent), followed by American Indian (54 percent) and black (52 percent) women. Asian American and white women are the least likely to be poor or near poor (35 percent and 30 percent, respectively).

The full 2012 Status of Women in North Carolina report is slated to be released in October. To read an advance fact sheet on the findings prepared by the independent Institute for Women’s Policy Research on behalf of the N.C. Council for Women , click here.

 

Today is Equal Pay Day, a day that marks the wage gap between working women and men. According to the National Committee on Pay Equity, each year Equal Pay Day falls on a Tuesday to illustrate how far into the work week women must work to earn what men earned the previous week. Nationally, women are still paid 77 cents for each dollar earned annually by men – a gap of 23 cents.

Here in North Carolina, working women fare a little better, but not by much. North Carolina’s working women are still only earning 80.7 percent of men’s earnings.

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A recent report by the Institute for Women’s Policy Research shows that Americans’ economic security is dwindling following the Great Recession, and that women and single mothers are reporting especially high rates of daily hardship.

Both women and men reported difficulties with paying for basic needs such as food, health care, housing, utilities, and transportation. Yet the survey responses, which are disaggregated by gender, show that the Recession has increased women’s economic vulnerability even more than men’s. As we have reported elsewhere, the persistence of the pay gap; the disproportionate, if small, share of the economic recovery that women have experienced; and the lack of realistic work-family policies are all factors in this story.

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The AARP recently published a report finding that almost 1.2 million North Carolinians cared for an adult family member, partner, or friend suffering from chronic illness in 2009. The report also found that nearly two-thirds of caregivers are women and that the majority of these women worked at least part-time on top of the unpaid work of caring for their loved ones.

The struggle to manage a caregiving role in addition to a part- or full-time job is nothing new to many women. Nor are the challenges that persist when mothers balance family and work responsibilities. Unfortunately, women with family responsibilities have long navigated workplaces that ignore today’s family structures and responsibilities.

The demographics of our workforce have completely changed in the last century with women’s increased labor force participation and at the same time the definition of family has fortunately evolved to include single parents and same-sex couples.  Many workplace policies, however, are still based on the concept of a male breadwinner and assume that there is a stay-at-home wife to take care of family responsibilities. Read More